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The Secret History of the Mongols pdf
The Secret History of the Mongols pdf The Life and Times of Chinggis Khan by Urgunge Onon. A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century. The Secret History of the Mongols is a primary account covering the history of the Mongols under Genghis Khan and his son Ogaden. The epic itself is worth reading for those who have any interest in Genghis and his empire. The Mongol attitude to many things is very different from ours, and this comes out well.
The Secret History of the Mongols
INTRODUCTION of The Secret History of the Mongols: The East has known only three great men. Sakyamuni was born a prince around 500 BC in what is now Nepal. Distressed by human suffering, he left his family, achieved enlightenment through meditation, and became the Buddha. According to his teachings, life is painful, the origin of the pain is desire, the end of pain can be achieved by ending desire, and the way to this is through right living.
This philosophy of ‘cause and effect’ spread northwards into Tibet, where it absorbed the popular Bon religion and changed greatly in nature. The resulting synthesis, known as Lamaism, can be criticised as passive and fatalistic.
Lamaism became popular among the Mongols1 during the reign of Kublai Qahan (1215–1294). Confucius was born at around the same time as the Buddha, into China’s lower aristocracy. Confucius wanted to restore China to a golden age of peace.
He also said that ‘the universe belongs to the public’, but although he emphasised the need for ethical conduct, he believed implicitly in a society shaped by the hereditary right of aristocrats. He helped to endow the Chinese with the idea that China lay at the centre of the universe, and he persuaded ordinary Chinese to confine their loyalties to their family and the emperor.
Confucianism spread to the countries of the East that practised settled agriculture but not to nomadic countries like Mongolia. Temüjin, the personal name of Chinggis Qahan, was born on the sixteenth day of the fourth lunar month in the year 1162 into the family of a tribal leader. Some historians, for example, the Persian Rashid al-Din (1247– 1318), who was of Jewish origin, say that Chinggis was born earlier, in 1155, the Year of the Pig.
Neither Jews nor Muslims (nor, for that matter, Mongols) was like pigs and many Persians deeply hated the Mongols, who set up a dynasty (the Il-Qahan, which ran from 1265 to 1335), in their country. So it was probably with some satisfaction that Rashid al-Din determined 1155 as the year of birth of the Mongol world-conqueror.
Chinggis did, however, die in a Pig Year, 1227. Mongol society developed in three stages. It rose on the basis of a hunting economy in the forest regions to the north of the Mongol heartland. During this period was created the title mergen, meaning ‘a good hunter’ or ‘an intelligent person.
When the Mongols emerged from the forests, they created a new title, ba’atur, or ‘hero’, which shows that the distinct Mongol tribes of the day were at war with one another and were probably engaged in a nomadic way of life. Around the eighth century, two new titles appeared: noyan, meaning ‘lord’, and qan, usually transcribed in English as ‘khan’.
In the sixth century, Turkic nomadic tribes, later known as Orkhon Turkish, moved into the territory of present-day Mongolia and ruled the area until the middle of the seventh century, when they were replaced by the Uighurs (who stayed until the eighth and ninth centuries).
By the tenth century, the Liao Dynasty (also known as Kitan) was established in the eastern part of the region, present-day Manchuria. The Kitan were in power from 916 to 1119, when they, in turn, were replaced by another nomadic people, the Jin Dynasty, also known as Altan Ulus (1115– 1234)… Source: The Secret History of the Mongols pdf.
the secret history of the mongols pdf
Details about: the secret history of the Mongols pdf download
- Book Title: The Secret History of the Mongols pdf A Mongolian Epic Chronicle of the Thirteenth Century.
- Author: Urgunge Onon
- Category: Historical; Medieval
- Genre: Cultural Asia
- Collection: Cultural Asia Book
- Edition: Routledge Curzon Press; Illustrated édition
- ISBN: 0-7007-1335-2
- Pages: 307 Pages
- Size: 1.6 Mo